Sponge cake is a type of soft cake based on fat, wheat flour, sugar, baking soda and eggs. It is often used as a base for other types of cakes and desserts.
The Victoria Sponge cake was named after Queen Victoria, who favoured a slice of the sponge cake with her afternoon tea at 4 pm. A traditional Victoria sponge consists of two sponge sandwiches with jam and whipped cream between them; traditionally the top of the cake was not iced or decorated in any way.
Although simple to make, Victoria sponges recipes are notoriously sensitive to cooking times and temperatures. Because of this oven manufacturers often use a Victoria sponge recipe to test their ovens.
Other names for the Victoria Sponge are Victoria Sandwich and, less commonly, Victorian Cake.